We conducted a prospective longitudinal cohort study of 152 (69 male) adolescents with T1DM who underwent repeated MV complications assessments and ultrasound measurements of PFT from baseline (1997-2002) until 2008. Retinopathy was assessed by 7-field stereoscopic fundal photography and nephropathy by albumin excretion rate (AER) from three timed overnight urine specimens. Longitudinal analysis was performed using generalized estimating equations (GEE).

Guigui S., Lifshitz T., Levy J. Screening for diabetic retinopathy: review of current methods. Hosp Pract (1995). 2012;40(2):64-72.
doi: 10.3810/hp.2012.04.971.